The semantic differential framework
To stimulate adequate usage of the semantic differential by researchers in the future, in our paper we suggest a set of procedural guidelines for semantic differential development and usage. We have structured these guidelines in a framework of six steps. The framework is displayed in the below:
The framework differs from existing general paradigms for measurement development and validation in two main ways. First, it advocates particular attention for collecting the set of relevant bipolar scales (stage 1) and establishing semantic differential dimensionality (stage 4). Second, the framework emphasizes the adequate use and application of linguistics by adding a novel stage for linguistic testing of semantic bipolarity (stage 2) and by proposing distinct stages for testing of wording (stage 3) and contextual contamination (stage 5). As such, it complies with the seminal works of Charles Osgood and colleagues [1,2] who state that linguistics forms the crux of the semantic differential.
For a detailed description and illustration exercise of the framework, please see section 3 and 4 in our paper.
References used on this page:
1. Osgood, C.E., Suci, G.J., and Tannenbaum, P.H. (1957) The measurement of meaning, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL
2. Snider, J. G., & Osgood, C. E. (Eds.). (1969). Semantic differential technique: A sourcebook. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.