Developing semantic differentials
While there are ample guidelines for developing measurement instruments in the academic fields of information systems, marketing, and behavioral sciences [e.g., 1,2,3,4] , it is recommended to use the semantic differential framework for two reasons. First, in line with the semantic differential literature, it advocates particular attention for collecting the set of relevant bipolar scales (stage 1) and establishing semantic differential dimensionality (stage 4). The fact that most semantic differential applications fail to address these rather basic requirements of semantic differentiation (see Table 3 in our paper) highlights the need for this focus. Second, the framework emphasizes the adequate use and application of linguistics by adding a novel stage for linguistic testing of semantic bipolarity (stage 2) and by proposing distinct stages for testing of wording (stage 3) and contextual contamination (stage 5). As such, it complies with the seminal works of Osgood et al.and colleagues who state that linguistics forms the crux of the semantic differential method [5,6].
References used on this page:
1. Devellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
2. MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2011). Construct measurement and validation procedures in MIS and behavioral research: Integrating new and existing techniques. MIS Quarterly, 35(2), 293-334.
3. Netemeyer, R. G., Bearden, W. O., & Sharma, S. (2003). Scaling procedures: Issues and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
4. Ping, R. A., Jr. (2004). On assuring valid measures for theoretical models using survey data. Journal of Business Research, 57(2), 125-141.
5. Osgood, C.E., Suci, G.J., and Tannenbaum, P.H. (1957) The measurement of meaning, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL
6. Snider, J. G., & Osgood, C. E. (Eds.). (1969). Semantic differential technique: A sourcebook. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.